Fire in a broad sense is the effect a combination of fuel, heat, and and light (Orake and Adoghe 2009). Fire is the rapid oxidation, releasing heat, and light, various reaction products. Slower oxidation process like rustling and digestion are not included by this definition, fire in its common form can result to configuration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process that affects  ecological systems across the globe.
The flame is visible portion of the fire and consists of growing hot gases. If hot enough the fire may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending the substances and any outside, the colour of the flame and the fire’s intensity will be different.

For fire occur three essential factors must be present in the right proportions which are fuel, oxygen and heat and this usually represent by the fire triangle. The triangle can be broken by removing any of the  components mentioned above and thereby the fire will be extinguished.

Fire start when a flammable and/ or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen rich compound ( though non-oxygen oxidizers exixt that can replace oxygen), is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperation above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction.

Should the nature and size of the fire make it controllable, use the appropraite available extinguisher and proceed with the method described below, should be fire be judged “uncontrollable”, follow the “Evacuation procedures for uncontrollable fires”. In all cases, call public safety to report the incident.

They include solid material such as wood, paper, textiles,rubber etc. The ABC extinguisher can extinguish this type of fire.

This include flammable or combustible liquids, greases, petroleum product, solvent etc. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical ABC extinguishers should be used. Carbon dioxide extinguishers do not leave any residue, whereas dry chemical devices do. Pressurized water unit should not be used since the immiscibility of solvents and water may result in spreading of the fire.

Live electrical equipment involved equipment involved in a fire. If possible, turn off the electrical power to the devices and then use either the dry chemical extinguisher or a carbon dioxide extinguisher, if available.

Sodium, potassium, Magnesium, titatium, Zirconium and other metals. If Sodium, magnisium, or any other flammable metakl powders on the appropraite. Dry powder extinguishing agent such as graphite, limestone, sand or sodium carbonate must be made available for fire emergency before work is started.

Heat loss or gain can occur through an element of the building envelope ( wall, floor or roof/ceiling) by.

This is transfer of heat through the motion of heated matter ie through the motion of smoke, hot air and heated gases produced by the fire when it is confined, converted heat moves in predictable patterns. The fire produces lighter than air gases that rise to word high parts of the unit. Heated air which is lighter than cool air also as does the smoke produced by combination. As the hot air and gases rise from, this begin to cool as they drop down to be reheated and into, which may form flames when heat spread from the location, wind or drought.

This is the transfer heat through a solid body known as conductors without those materials themselves actually burning. Wood is originally a poor conductor of heat, but metals are good conductors. Not all substances conduct but paper, air stone is a moderately good conductor. Not all substances conduct but paper, air stone is a moderately good conductor but appear, air and cloth are poor heat conductor just like wood. Since most industrial areas (metals), heat transfer by conduction as a potential hazard. Fire can thus move from one to another.

Heat radiation is transfer of heat from a source across an intervening space, no material substance is involved. The heat travels outward from the fire in the same manner as light, it is increase that is in straight lines when it contacts a body. It is absorbed, reflected or transmitted. Absorbing heat increases the temperature of the temperature of the absorbing body.

For example, radiant heat that is absorbed by an overhead will increase to ignite its pain. Heat radiation extends fire by heating combustion substances in its path, causing them to heating combustible substances in its path, causing them to produces than to vapour and then hence protective clothing must be water by fire fighters, such heat can make an approach to dry happen protective or dry chemical. Radiation occur when material ignited, when placed close to a source of radiated heat.

This is when combustible give off sufficient vapour to encourage combustion and continue to burn when they come in contract with a naked flame. For example of a piece of paper is exposed to a lighted candle fire and heat can spread to the next piece and fire continues to burn.


  • Fire prevention measures should be taken for all area of the facility or plant so as minimize the chance of occurrence of fire. This can`be done by:
  • Avoiding loose, temporary and trapped electrical
  • Cleaning or mopping leakages or spilled oil
  • Maintaining excellent housekeeping
  • Prohibiting smoking and use of open flames in places where combustibles material are kept.
  • Proper earthing of electrical equipment.
  • Training of employs about fire prevention fire fighting .
  • Proper maintenance of firefighting equipment and fire detention system.
  • Conducting fire drill at regular intervals.

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