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DRILLING RIG


DRILLING RIG CONFIGURATION
The drilling rig is identified by the derrick or mast, the device that drive the rig and other equipment ( the drawworks, crown block, travelling block, and the hoisting line). It also contains rotating equipment which includes (swivel, kelly cock, kelly saver sub,drill pipe, tool joint, drill collar and the bit).

Also the rig contains circulating system which includes : drilling fluid, mud tanks,mud pumps, shale shaker, desander, desilter and the mud cycle.
Part of the rig is also the well control equipment, which includes the blow out preventers, accumulators, choke manifold, mud gas seperator and diverter as the case may be. Other auxiliaries in the rig are: The electricity generator, air compressor, mud storage facility, a change house (crew quater), a doghouse, tool house.

Sometimes, the tool pusher is provided with a trailer that serves as an office with a telephone and radio for communication with the head office and also as his living quaters while on duty.
The number and type of auxiliary to be found on a drilling rig are influenced greatly by the service for which the rig is to be used.

DRILLING PROCESS AND CONFIGURATION
In order to make hole efficiently, the rotary rig must perform five basis functions, namely: hoisting, rotating, circulating, powering and well control operation.
These functions are interlinked together and take place side by side for the purpose of hole making. The main drilling is accomplished by the rotating system. The principal feature of the rotating system is the rotary table. The rotary table is powered by the prime movers  to rotate the the master bushing on which the kelly bushing is attached. The kelly bushing rotates the kelly. The rotation of the kelly causes the drill stem  and the bit to turn and thus make hole as the bit grinds away the rock formation. 

The kelly is supported by the hoisting system.
The hoisting system is used to raise and lower the drill stem and also to support the lower pipe that is used for casing and tubing. A mast or derrick supports the hook by means of the travelling block, wire rope, crown block and draw works.

The draw works is powered by two or three engines called prime movers to raise or lower the drill stem so that the bit can drill. The drill stem is the whole assembly from the swivel to the bit including the kelly, frill pipe, drill collars, bit, annulus, and back to the pit, the hydraulic power of the drilling fluid passing through the bit cleans the bottom of the hole and produces more effective drilling. Under special circumstances, a mud motor ot turbo drill is to turn the bit.


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